Incitement Against Jews Within BDS And Pro-Palestinian Facebook Groups – Part II

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Introduction

The Facebook groups examined in this report are focused on promoting the Palestinian cause and Boycott Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) against Israel. In this report we present posts that appeared in eight BDS groups between January 2016 and July 2019, with explicit and blatant antisemitic incitement against Jews and Judaism without any context linking them to Israel or its policies.

For the first part of this series, see MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis No. 1455, Incitement Against Jews By U.S.-Based Neo-Nazi And White Supremacist Members Of Pro-Palestinian And BDS Facebook Groups, May 16, 2019.

Groups Examined (see Appendix for details):

  1. Boycott Israel[1]: Public group with 10,000 members.
  2. BDS FIRST[2]: Public group with about 2,000 members.
  3. Stand with Palestine[3]: Public group with 60,000 members.
  4. ANTI ZIONIST – BOYCOTT ISRAEL[4]: Closed Facebook group with 4,000 members.
  5. A group for Palestine and its friends[5]: Closed group with 24,000 members.
  6. Boycott Israel…. Support the BDS[6]: Closed group with more than 35,000 members.
  7. Boycott Israel️. Free Palestine  ANSWER ALL 3 QUESTIONS PLZ!![7]: Closed group with more than 11,000 members.
  8. BOYCOTT ISRAEL NEWS AND MEDIA.[8]: Closed group with 800 members.

This report focuses solely on posts[9] published in these groups (most of which are very active) that express explicit hatred and vilification of Jews and incite against them. Members of these groups represent a wide range of geographic locations, religious beliefs, and political ideologies.[10] Incitement against Jews is rampant in all these groups, demonstrating that antisemitism transcends geographic, political and religious divides. As of this writing, none of the posts mentioned in this report were deleted or criticized by group administrators or moderators. In fact, many of the posts were created by them. This report includes only a small sample of the anti-Jewish incitement spread in these groups. It nevertheless is an accurate reflection of attitudes towards Jews that are rampant in BDS groups.

An analysis of the personal Facebook pages of users quoted in this work shows that they are based in Western countries such as the U.S., Canada, the U.K., and Australia, in Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Pakistan, as well as in South Africa and India. They express diverse positions towards politically charged issues in the U.S., including abortion, immigration, and gun control. The religious identity of members is diverse as well, with many members indicating that they are practicing Muslims and Christians, while others are ardent atheists.

Conspiracy Theories, Jewish Warmongering, And Holocaust Denial

Members of BDS groups and pro-Palestinian Facebook groups often claim that Jews are nefariously behind various major global catastrophes throughout history. They claim that Jews regularly carry out “false-flag” attacks in order to implicate other groups (most recently Muslims) and to bring war and strife worldwide. They also claim that Jews falsify or stage attacks and persecution of their own people in order to gain sympathy and to further their plans for world domination. This can include accusing Jews of orchestrating their own persecution during World War II, and denying the veracity and/or extent of the Holocaust as well as of other modern antisemitic events.

Warmongering

A post in the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS features a cartoon image of a gun-toting, hook-nosed Orthodox Jew, calling for an attack against Muslim countries. The post states: “Fuck them dirty scum of the earth zio-maggots, peace in the Middle East can only exist when Israel doesn’t.” It was posted by Tommy Swan, a self-identified liberal from New Jersey.[11]

A comment posted on April 20, 2019 in this group, in response to a report from Palestine Post 24 about the Paris Notre-Dame fire,[12] featured the Happy Merchant meme,[13] a caricature of a stereotypical antisemitic portrayal of a Jew, with the text: “They burned a big mosque the same day. That’s [how] you get two other groups to hate each other. You attack each of them. This makes each think the other attacked him. I wonder who would want Christians and Muslims to hate each other. Must be someone who will profit from the situation.” The comment was by Frank Johnson of Wichita, Kansas, who vehemently opposes U.S. President Trump and particularly his immigration policy.[14]

A photo posted in the same group, Boycott Israel… Support BDS, features photo of a uniformed member of the U.S. military holding up a placard with the Happy Merchant and a handwritten caption: “I did not join the U.S. Army to die for: [caricature of a Jew].” This was posted by Justin Ezell, a former U.S. Air Force man from Florida.[15]

A meme posted in the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS claims Zionism was behind World Wars I, II, and III. The meme features the images of communist leaders Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin, all marked with red Stars of David. Adolf Hitler is depicted with a Jewish skullcap and side curls. The meme claims that “Zionism was the only party Hitler recognized.” This meme was published by Muhammad Iqbal Afridi, a member of the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS from Pakistan.[16] Forrest Carlton Lackey, self-described as a former member the U.S. military from Tennessee,[17] commented: “At the same time, this is an elite “jewish” thing by the synagogue of Satan (those who say they are Jewish, but they are not). They’re really atheistic or satanic globalists, and they set up the average innocent Jew to dry all the time.”… He is referring to verses from the Book of Revelation[18]. This verse is often quoted and referred to in the context of anti-Jewish incitement.

Vanessa Pearce,[19] a Canadian moderator of the group Stand with Palestine, posted a meme in the group on March 4, 2017 claiming: “Money has killed and ruined more people than guns have. Why can’t we talk about Jewish bankers?” Pearce wrote: “The Zionists own the U.S. Federal Reserve. The Zionist Rothschild’s own all central banks globally. The Rothschild’s also own Israel and direct its genocidal policies. Otto von Bismarck stated ‘I fear the Jewish banks with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America. And use it to systematically corrupt modern civilization. The Jews will not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars and chaos that the earth should become their inheritance.'”

An administrator of the group Anti Zionist – Boycott, Charles Hansen from Denmark[20] posted on May 13, 2017 a meme featuring a quote attributed to actor Mel Gibson: “The Jews are responsible for all the wars in the world.” In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS user Gabriel V. Helsing[21] posted on September 5, 2018 a more popular version of the same meme.

Jewish Involvement in False Flag Operations

Om January 26, 2017, in the group Stand with Palestine, Bradley Omar Farid[22] posted: “the Jews killed the people of China with opium under the British banner.” On May 4, 2016, he suggested in the same group that President Roosevelt may have been assassinated by Jews in 1945 in order to make way for Harry Truman who was more sympathetic to the Zionist cause: “On April 5 1945, FDR writes to Saudi King Ibn Saud stating: ‘[…] Your Majesty will also doubtless recall that during our recent conversation I assured you that I would take no action, in my capacity as Chief of the Executive Branch of this Government, which might prove hostile to the Arab people.’ Strangely exactly a week after FDR wrote the above letter, President Franklin D. Roosevelt is found dead on April 12th 1945. Normally FDR always stayed at the house of Jew Bernard Baruch, but this year he did not. His suicide or assassination cleared the final hurdle for creation and recognition of Israel. Harry Truman recognized the State of Israel on May 14, 1948, eleven minutes after it declared itself a nation. FDR would not have done it.”

In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS on April 18, 2019, Rex Sobotka[23] wrote. “We have a term in the rural US for a deliberate-set fire. It’s called ‘Jewish Lightning'” Michael W. Lurie, a group member from Vestal, New York who supported a Libertarian gubernatorial candidate in the 2018 elections,[24] responded: “Jewish lightning is also applicable when a massive building complex is insured for billions after spending only millions. And collecting a payout for $4.5 billion when your buildings are demolished two months later.”

Vanessa Pearce, who is a moderator of the group Stand with Palestine, posted a meme on April 6, 2017 claiming the Jews were behind the Israeli attack on USS Liberty in June 1967, as well as the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U.S. The meme claims that Jews carried out these attacks and tried to pin it on Arabs. “The war on terror is a Jewish scam,” the meme states. Pearce prefaced: “…Henry Ford on ‘The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem.’ The strategies noted by Henry Ford are apparent in this Age of Big Lies when one realizes that it was Zionists, not Muslims, who did 9/11. This Age of Big Lies has been in development for hundreds of years. The assumption that America was attacked by Muslims on 9/11 also lies behind the widespread perception of Islam as an inherently violent religion and therefore of Muslims as guilty until proven innocent.”

A meme insinuating that Jews were behind the 9/11 attacks was posted in the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS by user Munther Bin Ahmad from Abu Dhabi.[25] The meme shows two men, with the Laughing Merchant superimposed over the faces. The text reads: “We’ll have two planes come in like this. Then we’ll drop the buildings.” Derek Dlowe[26] commented: “Fucking COCKSUCKER JEW BASTARD.”

John Hansen, presumably another alias of Charles Hansen,[27] an administrator of the group Anti Zionist – Boycott Israel, posted a meme mocking the November 2018 attack on the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh, claiming: “six million reported dead in synagogue shooting.”

Claims that Jews Stage Antisemitic Attacks to Garner Sympathy

On April 26, 2019 a report titled “Jewish man charged with hate crime for drawing swastikas pleads guilty to lesser charge” [28] was posted in the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS. Gabriel V. Helsing who shared the report in the group, wrote: “That’s why I never liked J*** [Jews]!!!! They’re untrustworthy and dishonest like serpents!!” Paul Bishara Stephen commented on Helsing’s post by saying, “They manipulate and control. They never assimilate to a country. They think they are the rulers of the Goyim.” To which Helsing responded: “So that’s why we must expose them all and expel them all from our countries so as to spare ourselves from heartaches and headaches!!!!! The faster we are rid of them, the better!!!!”

On March 3, 2017 a video of a news report claiming that a Jewish student had painted swastikas on her own dorm room was shared in the same group by Jimmy Stephen.[29][30] In response to the video, Brett Gardner, a poster from the UK[31], commented with a meme that appears frequently in BDS groups in different versions: An Orthodox Jew is holding a two-way radio[32] with the caption reading: “Spotted a few smart Goyim they’re on to us. OK, activating Holocaust Antisemitism mode – Rabbi #1_out.” On June 16, 2019 another popular meme based on the same photo was posted by Charles Hansen in the group Anti Zionist – Boycott Israel, of which he is an administrator (as indicated by the shield icon near his name.) This meme accuses Jews of staging false-flag attacks intended to implicate Muslims.

Holocaust – Mockery and Denial

On August 28, 2018, administrators in the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS posted a warning against mentioning the Holocaust or Hitler in the group for fear the group would be shut down. Michael Rowe, an administrator from the U.K[33] posted the announcement: “To all members do not post Holocaust memes or comments. That can get this group nuked.” A similar post in the same group was made by the administrator Leo Menssen.[34] Nevertheless, Holocaust denial and other posts referring to the Holocaust continued to made in the group.

On December 6, 2016, Menssen commented to a post in the group with a meme featuring Hitler and other SS military personnel, the caption reads: “They told you that we were monsters we were the last warriors who fought the satanic Jewish banking cartel that rules you today.”[35]

A discussion that took place in the group Boycott Israel Free Palestine Answer All 3 Questions PLZ, on May 4, 2017, demonstrates the prevailing attitudes towards the Holocaust in these groups. Two group administrators, Otto C Bachrach[36] and Sharron Mcinally[37], who describes herself on her Facebook page as a ‘peaceful activist at Supporting Independence of Palestine’, mocked a fellow member of the group from Belgium, Johan S Volstaat[38], who tried to convince Bachrach that the Holocaust was a hoax. ‘The holocaust is a hoax ……. brutal things did happen in brutal work camps, but gas chambers? […] knowing that adolf hitler had meany jewisch in service, his cook, his doctor and meany meany more….. even top branch commanders where jewisch and he knew it. so otto……. stop crying oke? be a man’ Bacharach tagged his co-admin Mcinally and wrote: “What should I do with this one, he’s pissed me off, he’s not been paying attention in class.” Mcinally reacted with bemused and laughing emojis. Bachrach wrote, tongue in cheek: “I’m seriously upset, the Holocaust is a hoax, really” Mcinally responded: “Like I said he’s preaching to the converted Otto but still it’s funny.” Lindsay Bellas[39], a former member of the group from the U.K. who is pro-life, chimed in: “Otto, It is funny when people preach to the converted…” and “Otto bless this poor guy. He tried. But it’s so funny cos you’re the one who is so blatant about this.”

In On April 4, 2016, a cartoon from Der Strumer portraying the Jewa as a spider taking over the world was posted in the group Stand with Palestine by Anwar Mengal from Dubai.[40]

A comment in the group Boycott Israel… Support Palestine from June 4, 2019 featured a meme with the joke: “Cooking teacher: ‘today we’ll learn how to use the oven,’ The German kid: [image of a boy wearing a t-shirt printed with ‘The Expert’].” Sid Sadaqath,[41] who posted the meme commented on his post, asking whether he should post the meme on his wall (personal Facebook page), because he fears a Facebook ban. Another poster advised him to post the meme but not to make it public.

In the same group, on May 6, 2018, Saad Ahmed, a user from the U.K.[42] posted a meme featuring a photo of Anne Frank with the caption: “What’s cooking? Oh its my family.”

The group Anti Zionist – Boycott Israel also featured meme mocking Anne Frank, posted by Ken Schneider, a supporter of British Fascism.[43] The meme states: “When you get sent to Auschwitz where children are executed on arrival except you aren’t executed on arrival except you aren’t executed on arrival [sic] for some reason and then you get transferred to a second death camp because apparently transfers between death camps was a thing and then you get sick so the Nazis put you in a hospital they built inside a death camp for the people they were allegedly exterminating then you die of Typhus but still get hailed a “holocaust victim” because your needs to use your diary to get shekels.”

In the group Stand with Palestine, Vanessa Pearce shared a meme also featuring Anne Frank on December 27, 2016. It references a common Holocaust denial trope, claiming that the diaries of Anne Frank were a forgery because they were written in ball-point pen which had not yet been invented at the time of her death in 1945. Pearce shared a detailed version of this claim in her post: “The 15-year-old girl Anne Frank and her father, Otto Frank, were deported from the Netherlands to Auschwitz in September 1944. Several weeks later […] Anne was evacuated along with many other Jews to the Bergen-Belsen camp, where she died of typhus in March 1945. The German state forensic bureau, the Bundes Kriminal Amt (BKA), forensically examined the original ‘diary’ manuscript. Their analysis determined that “significant” portions of the work were written with a ballpoint pen. Since ballpoint pens were not available before 1951, portions of the work were added well after the war (Anne Frank died in March 1945). The BKA also determined that none of the “diary” handwriting matched known examples of Anne’s handwriting. […] the entire “diary” was a postwar fake. The true author of the diary was Jewish novelist Meyer Levin. […]”

Another Anne Frank meme was posted in the same group on March 20, 2019 by Abdul-Qader Haimour[44]. This meme also refers to the ballpoint pen myth of Anne Frank. It uses imagery from the film Back to the Future, mocking the veracity of the Anne Frank diaries.

In the same group, Bradley Omar Farid posted a meme claiming Nobel laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel is a “fake holocaust survivor” and that he was awarded the Nobel prize in order to “pollute humanity with untrue history and facts.” According to the meme, “Elie Wiesel claims this is him in the famous Buchenwald photo. He also claims to have the number A-7713 tattooed on his left arm (although no one has seen it). This is Miklos Gruner in the same photo. According to Gruner this man is not Lazar Wiesel (the person who actually has the A-7713 tattoo) nor is it ‘Elie Wiesel.’…”

The group Stand with Palestine featured another Anne Frank post published on February 1, 2016. This post also referred to the Diary of Anne Frank as a “hoax” in an article from an organization called Nationalist Coalition titled: “Anne Frank Hoax Exposed, Clever Jew Made Millions from Dead Daughter.”

The meme above was part of a series of Holocaust memes posted by Jeffery Sloane.[45] On the same day, another post asserts that “the Holocaust is a successful historical fiction,” attributing the quote to a “Holocaust denying rabbi” speaking at a 2006 Tehran conference.[46]

A thread that formed in the same group featured several Hitler related memes. Takder Nama[47], a member of the group from London, U.K. posted a meme that compares images of Berlin under Nazi occupation and modern day Berlin with a Hanukkah menorah lit in front of the Reichstag. Beneath this, the Happy Merchant caricature asks an angry Hitler: “Jew mad brah?” Jeffery Sloane replied: “Ouch! Nails it dead on.” He then shared a meme of his own; the meme features Hitler with the caption: “I did Nazi that coming, did Jew?”

Sloane shared another meme in this thread, with a supposed Hitler quote from April 1945, that is commonly used by neo-Nazis: “My spirit will rise from the grave, and the whole world will know that I was right.”

In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS, Robert Madsen a poster from Canada who expresses support for Liberal political candidates[48], commented on a a link to a CNN report about Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg testifying before Congress. [49] Madsen wrote about Zuckerberg, who is Jewish: “Right to the gas chamber.” In the same group, on April 9, 2019, Mohamed Zaneer, a Sri Lankan living in Canada,[50] wrote: “Thankfully Hitler did the right thing.” Philip Dennany[51], an advocate of gun control from Indiana, replied: “Many of us do wish he did the things he was alleged to have done.” On March 19, 2016, Bradley Omar Farid posted on Stand with Palestine saying: “…Jews must go back to where they come from…” Husam Baker,[52] a group member form Bulgaria, commented: “all garbage [must go] back to the ghetto”. Fadi Zebdeh[53] answered: “Auschwitz.” On February 9, 2016, Muhamamd Waqaar Baig,[54] from Pakistan, posted a comment in the same group, using a meme featuring a young woman with a speech bubble saying: “I am starting to think Hitler may not have been such a bad guy after all.”

Hatred Of Jews

Members of Facebook groups dedicated to the BDS movement and to support of Palestine explicitly express their hatred of Jews as a people, religious group, and race. Many members differentiate between anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism, by directing their hate to Zionists rather than all Jews or by denying the ‘Semitism’ of Jews. Some of the groups state in their guidelines that they distinguish between Judaism and Zionism. However, this distinction is often ignored by members of the group, administrators and moderators. Some members openly embrace the title of antisemites. Many group members, who are careful to verbally distinguish between Judaism and Zionism or Jews and Zionists, nevertheless make use of antisemitic tropes and imagery.

Alan Diggle, an administrator of the group Boycott Israel… Support Palestine posted a link to a news report titled “Family kicked off flight over body odour complaint.” [55] Diggle prefaced the article: “The stinky Jewish family was kicked off the airplane for smelling bad… lol.”

In the group Stand with Palestine, Bradley Omar Farid published a post on March 19, 2016, telling the story of the M.S. St. Louis, a ship of Jewish refugees from Europe, who sought asylum in Cuba, the U.S., and Canada in 1939, and were turned down by immigration authorities in all three countries. The ship returned to Europe and the Jews who were on board were sent to their deaths. Farid concluded: “Since the Kristallnacht […] pogrom of November 9–10, 1938, the German government had sought to accelerate the pace of forced Jewish emigration. No one wanted of jews, denied asylum.” Paul Bruce, a former member of the British Army,[56] commented: “they are rejected because they are pure evil”.

Zem Hemmet[57] posted a link to an article from a neo-Nazi website, titled: “‘Jewxit’: A Glimmer Of Hope For England’s Future As 300,000 Jews Threaten To Leave.”[58] Hemmet quoted the article: “Who knew it would be as simple as voting for a radical socialist like Jeremy Corbyn, whose public support for the Palestinians has so angered and “terrified” the Jews in the U.K. that they are willing to leave, perhaps to Israel, just to make a point and hopefully ‘tarnish’ England’s international reputation as a senile lapdog for the interests of the Rothschilds? But let’s not get our hopes up, too much. Jews secretly need antisemites to make them, well, feel like real Jews by giving them yet another reason to be dissatisfied with a country which handed over the keys to the kingdom to them a long time ago.”

Leo Menssen, a group administrator, wrote: “Be sure the door doesn’t hit your arse on the way out.” Phillip Julio Long, a Libertarian, according to his Facebook page,[59] commented: “That is called an EXODUS a planned organized RETREAT to FLEE FROM JUSTICE because they know their plans have failed and they are about to lose their  and possibly their lives as well for high TREASON.” Taggert Hodge, a supporter of the U.S. Democratic Party ,[60] responded to Long by saying: “Like rats from a sinking ship. Let’s hope that they all drown. That would be justice.” Raul Roman[61] commented: “Why can’t these fucken people just be normal. They are not Gods chosen, they are not special, they are just human. Act like it.” Jack Noir Francis, a poster from South Africa, [62] responded to him: “Uhmm are they even Human?” To which Roman replied: “Yea, sub human.” Gabriel V. Helsing wrote: “Just go screw yourselves!!!! J** shit !!!! Hope that you don’t show your J***** butts everywhere on this earth because if I see anyone of you around, you can bet your butts that you’re going to get a good beating and a bloodied and broken face each !!!!!

On February 16, 2017, in the group Stand with Palestine, Mark Hollingsworth of South Carolina wrote: “Believe it or not folks,… Americans are more afraid of being called an antisimite than being homeless. Stand up non jews and show those scum supremacist jews they are no better or smarter than you are & they are truly delusional if them or anyone else think they are gods chosen!” To which Mark Marsh[63] commented: “[Judaism is] the most xenophobic, racist nationalism the World has ever seen. … remember these war mongering bastards lost Khazaria when their neighbors had had enough of Them almost a Millenia ago. … To vengefully kill other races and steal their land has been their most basic Cultural Pillar EVER SINCE. …. I call it TALMUDIC CANNIBALISM.”

In the group “Boycott Israel… Support BDS, on April 20, 2019, Gabriel V. Helsing shared a Newsweek article titled: “Jews are the smartest race in the world and superior humans, Israeli lawmaker claims.”[64] Helsing prefaced the article with the text: “J*** are the smartest race and superior humans?? You’ve got to be joking!! I mean all that J*** know only is to steal ideas from other and claim them as their own and …. Voila… the ideas got them awards!! Just like what they did to the originals!!! Stole their identities, their scripture and culture!! As far as I’m concerned, J*** are the most stupid people on earth and a bunch of thieves and robbers!!! Not to mention mass murderers!!” Abonjo de Mansabay[65] wrote: “Judas bloodline.” Alex Bishop[66], a supporter of Scottish independence, posted a popular meme[67] featuring Jewish children, to which Helsing responded: “They look stupid.”

Viviana Lombardi[68], an administrator of the group BDS First, posted on June 1, 2016 in Stand with Palestine, “I humbly suggest we stop looking for good Jews. It’s high time we stop getting distracted and wasting precious time consuming ancient, shoddily recycled information by those angling and promoting themselves as good Jews. Focus on the Goal: global, regional, national and local sovereignty and independence from the Organized Talmudic Octopus. I fail to see how pompous contemptuous Jews fit in. Where could they possibly add value to our burgeoning Resistance to their brethren’s evil schemes? […] I encourage all Gentiles to form a cohesive block that prevents Jews from entering our ranks until the Kehilla [Jewish community] has transparently given up on its multi-millennia old, genocidal dystopian dream. They must dismantle and liquidate ‘Israel’ and their usurious central banks, relinquish all their destructive weaponry and then rapidly dissolve all forms of Jewish power in media, academia and everywhere else and apologize to everyone.”

In the group Anti Zionist –Boycott Israel, Nuhrt Leinad[69], a member from Germany, posted on May 25, 2019 a photo from a demonstration. In the photo a demonstrator is holding a poster evoking the Ghostbusters logo, the ghost in the logo is replaced with the face of the Happy Merchant.

Demonization of Jews

Imagery

In the group Stand with Palestine, Bradley Omar Farid posted a meme featuring the manipulated image of a large-nosed young woman titled: “Miss Israel 2016.” According to the meme, the name of “Miss Israel” is Shoahshana Goldberg-Shekelstien,”She is so Jewtiful” states the meme, and Farid repeats this statement in his post. Two posters chastised Farid for the post.

On January 10, 2019, Hugh Smith, a libertarian sympathizer from Washington state,[70] posted a cartoon of the Happy Merchant with the body of a cockroach in the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS.

Religion

Many members of these groups refer to the Talmud as evil. They might claim that they have nothing against “real” Jews, only those who follow the Talmud. Often members of these groups conflate Talmudic Jews with Zionist Jews. They detail “quotes” from the Talmud that support pedophilia and other immoral acts and ideologies. Several members of these groups make reference to Jewish ritual murder as well.

In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS, a meme vilifying the Talmud was posted on January 14, 2017 by Tommy Swan. The meme shares common accsuations of moral depravity against the Talmud, stating: “let’s talk about the jews” and “Become Jew-wise and learn more at www.national-liberation.org.”

In the same group on December 29, 2016, Jimmy Stephen shared a video titled: “Rabbi calls for murder of critics of the Jews.” He wrote: “If the Talmud was my bible = i would try to bury it under ‘anti-semitism’ or ‘holocaust’ forever also! […] Israelis are proud of the mass murders of the goyim that they commit = walk with pride with their satanic Talmud that says Christians/goyim are animals to be used as servants and murdered without regret = in fact rewarded by their devil god! Talmud says the opposite of this lying rabbi who says Jews wants to help = Talmud says that Jews that show concern for goyim show weakness = never say anything nice to or about any goyim! Then he makes the threat of murder! divorce + boycott + sanction + divest from these Israeli criminals and mass murdering genocidal Talmud non-Jew killers who want to also enslave all non-Jews they find will make decent slaves!”

In the group ANTI-ZIONIST-BOYCOTT ISRAEL Ken Schneider posted a video[71] on June 14, 2019: “100% Proof the Jewish Talmud Approves Pedophilia!” As of October 3, 2019, the video was still active on YouTube.

On June 10, 2019, Schneider posted an article from Russia-Insider.com in the same group, titled: The Ritual Talmudic execution and Torture Methods of the Bolsheviks Were Satanic.” [72]

In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS, Marilyn Sheffield, a supporter of the U.S. Democratic party,[73] posted a meme on June 9, 2018 asking whether the Star of David is actually the “Star of Lucifer.”

Barry Graham, a member from Trinidad and Tobago,[74] posted in the same group on April 27, 2017: “The khazar fake jews were notorious all over Europe for kidnapping, torturing and murdering children for their satanic rituals, especially on their so called ‘holidays’. They were expelled from numerous countries in Europe for these satanic practices which harkens back to the Babylonian worship of the devil god Molloch!”

In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS Vanessa Pearce posted on april 13, 2017: “The Talmud is the real ‘bible’ of the Jews and that it supersedes the Old Testament. This volume has been condemned down through the ages for preaching hatred for Christ and all Christians. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia Fundamentally Judaism is Anti-Christian. The ‘Jewish World’, March 15, 1923 The Jew is not satisfied with de-Christianizing, he Judaizes, he destroys Catholic or Protestant faith, he provokes indifference, but he imposes his idea of the world, or morals, and of life upon those whose faith he ruins; he works at his age-old task, the annihilation of the religion of Christ. Bernard Lazare in L’Anti-Semitism, p. 350 The Christians are always singing about the blood. Let us give them enough of it! Let us cut their throats and drag them over the altar! And let them drown in their own blood! I dream of the day when the last priest is strangled on the guts of the last preacher. Jewish Chairman of the American Communist Party, Gus Hall”

On June 1, 2016, Shoaib Akhtar, an administrator of the group Boycott First from India,[75] posted a meme mentioning a much-quoted verse from the book of Revelations. “I know the blasphemy of them who say they are Jews and they are not- but are the synagogue of Satan”

Moral Corruption

Jews are accused of being morally corrupt by many members of these groups. Jews are portrayed as devious, selfish, criminal, greedy, and so on. Members who are socially conservative will accuse Jews of being sexually promiscious and spreading liberal social ideologies favoring homosexuality, abortions, and drug use.

In the group Anti-Zionist – Boycott Israel Ken Schneider shared a blog post[76] on June 12, 2019, asking whether abortion was a “Jewish thing”. Schneider wrote: “Jews are at the forefront of the pro-death forces because they don’t believe human life is sacred. How could they if the Talmud regards non-Jews as cattle? How else could they justify their treatment of Palestinians?”

In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS Gabriel V. Helsing posted a series of memes on September 5, 2017 demonizing the Jews. One meme askes “who are the Jews?” and answers the question with a long list of accusations against Jews. For instance, the Jews invented Communism, are behind radical feminism, are disloyal dual citizens , they are the reason your daughter has low self-esteem and desperately dresses like a whore, they are anti-gun, pro-open borders, are the aggressor, yet always play the victim, and more.

In the same group, on January 21, 2019 Nazz Dreyer Guido,[77] from Texas, posted a 1930s antisemitic pamphlet addressed to “Christian Vigilantes” encouraging them to “buy Gentile, employ Gentile, vote Gentile” and to “boycott the movies” because “Hollywood is the Sodom and Gomorroah where international jewry controls vice dope gambling; where young gentile girls are raped by Jewish producers, directors, casting directors who go unpunished; the Jewish Hollywood anti-Nazi League controls Communism in the motion picture industry.”

In the group Stand with Palestine, on November 2, 2017, group moderator Vanessa Pearce, posted a meme featuring a quote attributed to President Harry Truman[78] stating that “the Jews, I find are very, very selfish.” William Koblica[79] posted a meme using the same quote in the group on June 12, 2016.


On April 23, 2017 she wrote in the same group: “Jews are disproportionately white-collar criminals and have comprised the highly exploitative hypercapitalist class in every single country they have ever settled in… They move fluidly between the role of predator, parasite, or scavenger depending on their overall situation in the host country. At any given time the individual Jew or groups of Jews in a society are playing one or more of these different roles, but there is always an elite core of ultra-plutocratic Jews who manage to claw, cheat, steal, deceive, and/or kill their way to the top of the economic food chain at which point they commence to vampirically bleed the country dry of as much money as they can and begin to hoard it for themselves and the Jewish community. Hebrew Economics – Helping to expose the exploiters.”

Pearce also shared a photo of a flier originally created by the National Socialist American Workers Freedom Movement, the American Neo-Nazi party. The flier features a falsely-attributed antisemitic quote by Benjamin Franklin. Pearce writes that she is on “a seven day ban” on her other Facebook account for posting this flier.

On April 13, 2016, Bradley Omar Farid shared a more elaborate version of this false quote by Benjamin Franklin: “I fully agree with General Washington, that we must protect this young nation from an insidious influence and impenetration. The menace, gentlemen, is the Jews. In whatever country Jews have settled in any great number, they have lowered its moral tone; depreciated its commercial integrity; have segregated themselves and have not been assimilated; have sneered at and tried to undermine the Christian religion upon which that nation is founded, by objecting to its restrictions; have built up a state within the state; and when opposed have tried to strangle that country to death financially, as in the case of Spain and Portugal […] If you do not exclude them, in less than 200 years our descendants will be working in the fields to furnish them substance, while they will be in the counting houses…”

On March 18, 2016, Farid wrote in the group: “Jews have used their vaunted money-power to seize control of the Democratic Party and constitute over 50% of all its financial contributions. Today they are buying up more and more major U. S. companies. While only 3% of the population, the Jews control over 25% of the nation’s wealth and this percentage rises every year. They are the only racial group totally organized to work for political domination over America. Opposition to the Jews did not begin in Germany but dates back before the birth of Christ over 2,000 years ago! […] They are a nation of rascals and deceivers. […] Study the statements made by ‘The world’s greatest men.’ They reveal why the ‘wandering Jews’ have made enemies out of every host country that ever accepted them. CICERO (Marcus Tullius Cicero). First century B.C. Roman statesman, writer. ‘Softly! Softly! I want none but the judges to hear me. The Jews have already gotten me into a fine mess, as they have many other gentlemen. I have no desire to furnish further grist for their mills.’ (Oration in Defense of Flaccus) […] on another occasion Cicero wrote: “The Jews belong to a dark and repulsive force. One knows how numerous this clique is, how they stick together and what power they exercise through their unions.”

In the same group, on October 4, 2018 Abdul Razif[80], commented on a post by Heeda Ali,[81] a group administrator, by posting a meme featuring the Happy Merchant with a nose shaped like a vacuum cleaner, inhaling dollar bills. Ali liked the comment.

On April 24, 2016 he posted a caricature, again in the group Stand with Palestine, featuring Orthodox Jews molesting a young girl, as well as a series of memes accusing Jews of ritual murder. “Ya man… it run true their DNA. Can’t hide the history,” he wrote.

Jews Control The World Behind The Scenes

In the group Stand with Palestine, Peter Thompson, who opposes the Republican Party and supports asylum seekers in America,[82] posted a meme on May 26, 2017 from the antisemitic website SMOLOKO.com, stating that “American presidents are slaves of the Jews […] The Jews control America! Wake the hell up!”[83]

Amir Charles Hansen, an administrator of the group Anti Zionist – Boycott Israel, posted a meme in the group depicting a wallet full of wads of cash, with the Happy Merchant replacing Benjamin Franklin on $100 bills. “New notes coming [in the] U.S…. Reflect the real world better.”

In the group Boycott Israel Free Palestine Answer All 3 Questions PLZ!, Otto C Bachrach a group administrator, posted a meme explaining the concept of the New World Order.’[84] “Jews are controlling the Federal Banks, Wall Street, politicians, governments, the media, including Hollywood, television, newspapers, and the music industry. They hold major positions of power and influence in nearly every major country […] And you don’t know that it’s the Jews?”

Another common theme is that Jews were exiled from 109 countries throughout history. This trope is regularly used to justify animosity and violence towards Jews. In Stand with Palestine, John Rose[85] a member of the group from Spokane, Washington posted a meme demonstrating this theme in response to a post by an administrator of the group, Heeda Ali[86] on May 10, 2019. The meme evokes the 1990s TV show the Sopranos. “Ay, Tone. Dey say da joos was kicked outta 109 countries. I mean, I been kicked outta plenty of strip clubs. At some point, I thought, maybe it’s me.” Ali reacted with a heart to the meme. Another meme expressing the same idea was shared in the same group by Kamal Sulaiman[87] on January 26, 2016.

The cover photo of the group Boycott Israel News and Media is a cartoon falsely attributed to Ben Garrison[88] in which the media (depicted as the Happy Merchant with dollars in his pocket) is shown to be run by Jews but disguised as Gentile (depicted by a blonde woman who appears to be lawyer and columnist Ann Coulter) stating “Israel is our greatest ally!” and “never forget the 6,000,000.” The photo was added on June 4, 2019 by Jay Skinner,[89] the group admin.

Denial of Jewish Identity

A form of antisemitism prevalent in these groups is the delegitimization of the Jewish identity of modern Jews. Ashkenazi Jews are described as Khazars, or “fake’ Jews, with no connection to the historical Jewish people. Many times the term Ashkenazi Jews is conflated with Zionist Jews or Talmudic Jews. Another term used less frequently is “crypto-Jews” – but that also refers to non-Jews who show “Jewish” character traits. The myth that Ashkenazi Jews are descendent of the Khazars of the Caucasus region who according to legend converted en masse to Judaism in the Middle Ages is widely accepted as historical truth among members of these groups. This claim is often used to negate any accusations of antisemitism because Jews are not considered Semites. In fact, many times, members will claim that the Palestinians are the only true Semites.

Vanessa Pearce’s post in Stand with Palestine from December 21, 2016 demonstrates this point. “The people who call themselves Jews today have no Semitic or Hebrew relationship to the Biblical lands. Ever. All of those who call themselves Jews today converted to Judaism in 748 AD came from Asia the Ashkenazi, which means German, came from there. They then usurped the name Jew. The word Jew has never appeared in either the Old or New Testaments or any other Bible until the late 1800s. It was then that the Rothschilds hired and paid Cyrus Scofield, a religious snake oil salesman and jailed criminal, to re-write the King James version of the Bible to include that the Jews were the Chosen. […] The single biggest threat to our world is Israel. They claim to be Semitic and all too often use the phrase ‘anti-Semitic’. Well they aren’t Semitic people at all and never were. The Palestinians are, but the Ashkenazi aren’t. Jewish identity is itself anti-semitism has been commented from various points of view. From the perspective that Zionism was an outgrowth of White Supremacy rather than Jewish identity. Today’s so called Jews never ever stepped one toe in the Biblical lands. Today’s Jews are nothing more than Hebrew speaking Gentiles.”

On February 5, 2017, she wrote in the same group: “Why were the Khazar Ashkenazi Jews being expelled from 90 countries for a grand total of 110 times. The World’s Wickedest people= ASHKENAZI KAZARIANS PARADING AROUND AS ISRAELIS AND JEWS. […] evidence indicates that the Khazars themselves migrated to Poland and formed the cradle of Western (Ashkenazim) Jewry… […] God, they only converted to Talmudic Judaism in the 8th Century!! Originally pagan, then Jewish.”

Sharif Abdul Salaam[90] commented on a similar post by Pearce from June 9, 2017, in the same group: “Ashkenazim have never, and WILL never be the descendants of ibrahim…EVER…their genocide of the Palestinian people, their lying about their “heritage” and connection with the holy land will be punished by the one…ysa(jesus), son of maryam (mary) will return to kill dajjal (the antichrist) and all these fraudulent ashkenazim who work for him...Remember the evil work of Menachem Begin and the rest of these zionist pigs at Deir Yassin…Remember Sabra and Shatila…the debt WILL be repaid!!” Pitsa Orfanakos,[91] a Greek-American member of the group, commented: “Eran Elhaik, a geneticist at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, thinks so. In a recently published study in Genome Biology Evolution (Elhaik 2012), he is calling for a rewrite of commonly held assumptions about Jewish ancestry. Instead of being primarily the descendants of the 12 tribes of Israel, present-day Jewish populations are, finds Elhaik, primarily the children of a Turkish people who lived in what is now Russia, north of Georgia, east of Ukraine. This civilization, the Khazars, converted from tribal religions to Judaism between the 7th and 9th centuries.” Karl de Lang,[92] a member from the Netherlands, commented: “Zionists are born Khazarian nazicriminals.”

AnnaKarima Antonia Cornelia Sanders[93] commented to this post with a meme, stating: “The fundamentally questionable foundation of Zionism is Jews are actually not even the modern descendants of the Israel of the Biblical Old Testament: the people known today as Jews are primarily of a Turkish tribe known as the Khazars. The Khazars have no connection to Palestine. They converted to Judaism between 620 and 720 AD, and have no genetic connection to biblical Israel, and hence to the narratives of the Bible and the Holy Land. The fact is that he Jews of eastern European origin, who are known as the Ashkenazi Jews and who make up about 95% of the Jewish population of today, are of Khazar origin. In other words virtually all of the Jews of the modern world have no Hebrew ancestry, and no ancient connection with Palestine. These Eastern European Jews have neither a racial nor a historic connection with Palestine. Their ancestors were not inhabitants of the Promised Land. They are the direct descendants of the people the Khazar Kingdom.. the Khazars a non-Semitic, Turko Mongolian tribe.”

In the group Stand with Palestine, on December 13, 2017, Giles Leveson-Gower[94], a U.K. Labour Party supporter, wrote: “Round 98% of those identifying as Jews are European converts with ancestry to nowhere else than Europe. It is not rocket science as they have no middle eastern features, spread hate wherever they went and Hitler did not like them for their havoc across Europe not least the 30,000,000+ Russian lives lost at the hands of Jews/ Bolsheviks. Why have these people been ousted from over 100 European countries over the age including England in 1290, not to have them return for almost 400 years? […]”

Alan Diggle, an administrator of the group Boycott Israel… Support Palestine changed the group cover photo on June 22, 2019 to a very popular meme featuring children wearing kefiyas with the caption: “Someone once asked me if I am Antisemtic. I replied, ‘not at all, I like the Palestinians people.'”

In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS, Jimmy Stephen posted on March 30, 3018: “You cannot be a Anti-Semite with 93% to 95% of Israelis because they are Ashkenazis and drived from Khazar-Turkic-Mongol DNA — THEY ARE NOT SEMITES! For Jermey Corbyn to be an anti-semite he would have to order Palestinians be put in an Giant Open Air Apartheid Prison or killed because Palestinians are the real Semites — Nothing like the Khazarian Ashkenazis that are committing GENOCIDE against the Palestinians.”

In the group Stand with Palestine, Malaysian Amin KaTana MarZuki,[95] posted a comment on April 1, 2017: “They are not the semitic Jews, semitic jews are the original Jew (yahudee/Israelite; descendants of Prophet Jacob’s 12 sons)… 90% Jews living in Israel now are European (non semitic) khazar who converted to Jews… the khazar jews are fake Jews… Zionist are all khazar European khazar jews (fake jews)”

Jay Skinner, the administrator of the group Boycott Israel News and Media commented on a post from June 3, 2019 in the group: “Let’s start with the name they call themselves ‘Jews!’ This name was not used till early 19th Century. So it was impossible for them to claim Judea as Jewish since there is no ‘J’ in the Hebrew language. Jerusalem is also disqualified for the same reason. They were called Hebrew and NOT Jews! Sure there was a small percentage of Hebrew that migrated into Palestine after being forced to leave by the Romans for attacking the Roman authority in the area. The Roman General decided to also destroy their Temple for Sacrifices to their God in 70AD. There couldn’t have been much there after the Jews took off, because the General came out empty handed. Over 1,949 years since that day and not one artifacts has pin pointed where this Temple was located. A well known Jewish archeologists insist it not inside the city, but outside it. The adopted Jewish ‘Wailing Wall’ is nothing more than the last remains of a Roman Fort that was located at this site. They certainly wouldn’t have had it so close to the Roman Fort where El Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock are located right above. This is just a case of Israel claiming all in site as theirs and destroying everything that isn’t! They are finding plenty of Roman and Palestinians Christian and Muslim articles which they dismiss.”

On June 15, 2019, Fidel Rodriguez Arguinzoni[96] shared a link to an article[97] in the same group, claiming that “Ashkenazim are genetically European”.

In the group Anti Zionist – Boycott Israel, Ken Schneider posted a meme demonstrating this idea on June 16, 2019. The meme features an Orthodox Jew with the caption: “Hi, I’m a fake Israelite, and my father is Satan. I pretend to be a Hebrew, to steal the true identity away from real Israelites… The white race. Ssshhh, the filthy Goyim are awaking up…”

In the group Stand with Palestine, Mark Marsh commented on February 16, 2017: “The most xenophobic, racist nationalism the World has ever seen. … remember these war mongering bastards lost Khazaria when their neighbors had had enough of Them almost a Millenia ago. … To vengefully kill other races and steal their land has been their most basic Cultural Pillar EVER SINCE. …. I call it TALMUDIC CANNIBALISM.”

Calls To Action

While most antisemitic posts, memes, and videos focus on leveling accusations against Jews, expressing hate and demonization, several posts express actual calls for action against them. Users call for removal of Jews from positions of power, the killing of Jews, and express a wish for another Holocaust. Other users express their hope that the Jews will simply disappear or be removed from the earth.

John Hansen posted a meme in Anti Zionist – Boycott Israel on May 19, 2019 featuring U.S. President Donald Trump wearing a Jewish skullcap with the caption: “It’s not about white supremacism. It’s about Jewish supremacism. The only solution is worldwide simultaneous removal of Jewry from our banks, governments, news media, entertainment, academia, etc…”

A member of the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS shared a meme in January of 2019[98] stating: “Man will never be free until the last (((banker))) is strangled with the entrails of the last rabbi.” The meme features a photo of Orthodox Jews grinding flour for Matzo above a photo of a U.S. dollar printing press. The meme was posted in the context of reports that Israel seeks reparations from Arab countries for expelling Jews in 1948.

In the same group Steven Hayes wrote on May 22, 2019: “Jews are evil Satan worshipping pigs that need to be removed from the planet.”

Also in the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS Derek Dlowe posted on November 15, 2016: “The day the COCKSUCKER JEWS DISAPPEAR will be THE HAPPIEST DAY ON EARTH! In the group Boycott Israel Free Palestine Answer All 3 questions PLZ, Claus Prang, a user from Denmark,[99] commented on a post in the group on December 31, 2018, saying in Danish: “Multi Cunning Jews. Powerful Jews. Remove them from the surface of the earth.” The group administrator Sharron Mcinally marked the comment with a like.

In the group Stand with Palestine, on March 29, 2016, William Koblica posted a meme claiming: “We are Goyim. We are legion. Expect us.”

In Boycott Israel… Support BDS, Terry Bogard, a poster from Singapore, who is originally from the U.K.,[100] wrote on September 5, 2017: “I want PissraHELL and all Jooish pissheads gone and exterminated RIGHT NOW!!!! As a matter of fact, I can’t wait to use my swords on them and send them back to HELL from where they originally came from!!!!! Time to enforce their long overdue death warrants on them and wipe them out from the face of the earth!!!!!” Mike port[101] protested: “You shouldn’t have that hate for real Jews they are good god loving people on the other hand Israel is a terrorist state that kills children there’s a difference.” Liz Martin, a white supremacist living in South Korea according to her Facebook page,[102] commented by saying: “IF WE DONT GET RID OF THESE EVIL PEOPLE THIS WILL BE THE END OF HUMANITY AS WE SEE IT JEWS ARE THE CANCER OF THE WORLD”

In the group Stand with Palestine, Ashraful Islam, a Saudi user,[103] posted a comment to a post by group administrator Heeda Ali: “Need Another Hitler.” Ali was among the four people who liked his comment.

In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS, Rex Sobotka wrote on April 29, 2019: “Dusting off the cattle cars is commanded by God.” Sobotka was referring to the cattle cars that were used to transport the Jews to the death camps during the Holocaust.

On November 8, 2016, in the same group, he referenced the Holocaust again: “Fire-up the ovens! Build more of them!” Leo Menssen, an administrator of the group, commented with a meme featuring Hitler with the caption: “Middle East problems. Can I help?” Derek Dlowe responded: “He should have killed ALL OF THEM!”

In the group Stand with Palestine, Paul Lambe, from Belfast, Northern Ireland,[104] wrote on March 20, 2019: “Send the vermin to the ovens.”

Intersectionality

Members of these groups span a wide spectrum of political ideologies, from neo Nazis and white Supremacists to Communists and everything in between. The BDS cause bridges this political divide. There are many points of contention on matters of religion and society between Muslims, Christians, and atheists. Evidence of this can be found throughout this paper as well as in MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis No. 1455 Incitement Against Jews By U.S.-Based Neo-Nazi And White Supremacist Members Of Pro-Palestinian And BDS Facebook Groups. Members of BDS groups, who share blatant antisemitic views, may differ on several issues. Members from the left employ a tactic of Holocaust inversion,[105] describe Israelis as “new Nazis” and refer to the Israeli prime minister as “Hitler.” In contrast, members from the far right see Hitler and the Nazis (which they are careful to call the National Socialist Party)[106] in a favorable light, and so they protest such comparisons.

On the other hand, many posters consider the Nazis and Hitler as evil, and they claim that the Jews or Zionists learned their evil deeds from the Nazis and now perform similar atrocities against the Palestinians or they even surpass the Nazis in their cruelty. Many of these posters believe in a conspiracy theory claiming Hitler himself was Jewish or in cahoots with the Jews, Zionists, Rothschilds or any combination thereof. In contrast, other posters support Hitler and Nazi ideology, and they consider such accusations an insult to Hitler. By no means does this view of the Nazis and Hitler as evil indicate acceptance of the veracity of the historical facts of the Holocaust, such as the existence of death camps or the figure of six million Jewish victims. A good example to such a debate can be found in a thread from May 2017 in the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS. Raja Mahmoud, a poster from the UK,[107] wrote: “They [the Jews] need to be eradicated. Come back saint Adolf Hitler.” Muhammad Iqbal Afridi, from Pakistan,[108] responded: “Adolf Hitler himself was a Rothschild. Kindly research.”

Otto Bachrach, an administrator of the group Boycott Israel Free Palestine posted about his indignation in being branded a “right wing national front racist” for “talking truthfully” about the “history regarding world Jewry and Palestine […].” On May 10, 2017, he posted a meme in the same group, stating: “Did you ever notice that it’s ok to say Americans did this… The Russians do that… White people are… But if you say the Jews are doing this or that, you’re a racist anti-semitic Nazi? I say fuck that! If the Jews are doing something we should just say it! Dave Hickman, a supporter of the UK Labour Party,[109] chimed in: “The new age Nazis.” LeRex Mann[110] responded: “Please don’t bring the German NSDAP into this. Calling them Nazis only perpetuates the myth that Jews themselves are responsible for– that Hitler called for extermination of 6 million, etc.”

Another example is a debate that followed a meme posted by Zubaida Ali[111] in the group Stand with Palestine on February 9, 2016, suggesting that “Zionism is a new version of Nazism.” Angela R Schacht, a member from Australia,[112] responded with a meme featuring a quote by Adolf Hitler in support of Islam”. Angela Beverley, another member from Australia,[113] liked the meme and added the distinction: “[…] the correct term is National Socialism which has nothing to do with Zionism.”

Reese Lazara[114] a member of Boycott Israel… Support BDS posted a link to a Google search of the phrase “My spirit and the world will see I was right,” which are considered Hitler’s last words. Lazara wrote: “I might be labeled a white supremacist/ racist/ bigot/ neon nazi for this post but I think his words are coming to pass as time goes by the hidden truth is coming to the surface.” Charn Rainsbury[115] commented: “Black, white, brown, colour is not as issue, He is considered to be the last great white leader, he wanted the zionists out, we all do.” Lazare responded: “Yes he got rid of these bankers and their federal reserve their media their books everything created over 4 million jobs first smoking laws 40 hour working week laws for the environment etc.” Jane Knightingale, a U.K. based supporter of the UK Labour Party,[116] wrote: “No he didn’t that’s bullshit. The Rothschilds financed the coke head.” She added: “Hitler was like NetanYahoo, a sadistic pig who turns misfortunes onto others” and posted a meme to that effect as well. She posted a meme conflating Israel and white supremacy.

Another issue that is a bone of contention between members of BDS groups who post antisemitic statements is the issue of race, specifically attitudes towards white supremacy. Interestingly, attitudes towards racism are not always consistent. These groups carry views that are critical of white supremacy, posts that accuse Jews of white supremacy, and posts that support white supremacy views. On occasion posts expressing conflicting views on this spectrum are posted by the same people.

Kozmo Khani[117], a member of Boycott Israel… Support BDS from Austin Texas, posted a meme mocking the Ku Klux Klan on March 28, 2019. The meme reads: “If you ever feel stupid, just remember these jackasses actually believe they are genetically superior.” Rex Sobotka commented: “I think you forgot what page you are in. Fixed it for you. No charge and you’re welcome.” Sobotka re-framed the statement in another meme to reflect the group’s identity as he understands it, superimposing the same text on a photo of a Jewish child:

In the group Boycott Israel… Support BDS, Vanessa Pearce shared on September 14, 2017 an article titled “Tufts University activists publish guide calling Israel a ‘white supremacist state.”[118] Philip Julio Long objected: “Nope. It is not a White supremacist State, it is a Rothschild/Jewish Supremacist State.”

On April 17, 2017 Pearce posted a meme under the username Vanessa Carrington in the same group: “These are #white men running #Israel. And they try to tell us it’s not a #European #settler state. #fakehebrews #imposters #Ashkenazis. Katherine Stevens, who supported Bernie Sanders as a ‘good Jew’ in another post, commented: “Vanessa you do realise that Jews do not consider themselves white? They hate whites and are trying to eliminate them by orchestrating mass immigration! Israel is for Jews and only Jews!” Pearce responded: “Yes I know that but the fact is these Khazars are impostors who have stolen the identity of the Hebrew Israelite’s.”

Vanessa Pearce’s post in Stand with Palestine from December 21, 2016 mentioned earlier is also critical of white supremacy and accuses Judaism of links with white supremacy: “Jewish identity is itself anti-semitism has been commented from various points of view. From the perspective that Zionism was an outgrowth of White Supremacy rather than Jewish identity.”

John Hansen’s aforementioned post also refers to the tension between white supremacy and Jewish supremacy, deflecting accusations against White supremacy and pointing them towards “Jewish supremacism.”

Nnikman Mahadi a Malaysian member of the group Stand with Palestine, posted a meme in the group asking why people in Israel are white although the region is one of brown people.

Michael P. Kaehler, who claims to be the former president of the American Postal Workers Union,[119] commented with a screenshot from an Arab language TV show with an actor dressed as a stereotypical Jewish man laughing, the caption reads: “They think its white supremacy?”

In the group Stand with Palestine, Asef Rafat Ahmad Kazi[120], posted on February 26, 2017, sharing a link to an article[121] from the U.K. Evening Standard, titled “White Supremacist who wrote ‘kill all Muslims’ online jailed.” Grant Jack, an Australian supporter of white supremacy,[122] posted in support of this ‘white supremacist’: “He’s telling the truth trying to warn people and the courts shit on him for his actions. Judges who make wrong decisions need to be jailed themselves.”

Anwar Mengal posted a meme in the same group on April 4, 2016 claiming that “there will be no peace until enough of us kill enough of them.” The meme features a cartoon of a white man’s arm strangling the head of a snake marked “Zionies.” Mengali wrote: “Not only white, but everyone should unite against Israel.” The meme is taken from WhitesWillWin Party, which was created by James Laffrey who openly called for the assassination of all Jews by their white neighbors.[123]

Shaun Kingston[124] shared a link to an article from the MiddlEEASTEYE.net in the group Anti Zionist – Support BDS on March 24, 2019. The article states that white supremacy and Zionism are “birds of a feather.”[125] Charles Hansen wrote “that’s a fact” and shared a meme claiming America is controlled by Zionists.

Don Davis, a member from the U.K.,[126] commented on a post in Anti Zionist – Support BDS from July 13, 2018 referring to an article about the Confederate Flag being raised in South Carolina:[127] “Burn every damn Confederate battle flag and fine the shit out [of] the racist assholes that are flying it.” He continued: “Confederates are traitors to the United States of America. Do you not understand that? Just like trump is a traitor now.” Karl L. Aynedter[128] answered: “You do understand that the South was trying to avoid paying reparations for the Revolutionary War that the Rothschilds were attempting to extract from all the Southern States.” He shared a meme claiming that “at the height of American slavery, 78% of slave owners were ethnic Jews. 40% of the jewish population were slave owners, while only 0.35% of white Americans owned slaves.” Aynedter continued to share claims that are popular among white supremacist, saying that “less than 100.000 slaves were taken from Africa whereas over 4 million whites were taken from Ireland, mostly children. […] Don, did you know that over 3000.00 Blacks were members of the original KKK.”

Conclusions

The eight Facebook groups examined in this study were ostensibly created to support the BDS movement and the Palestinian cause, but serve as platforms for disseminating incitement against Jews, vilification of Jews, and demonization of Judaism. These expressions of anti-Jewish sentiment, which cut across political and religious identities, could have been deleted by the administrators of the groups. However, not only they are not deleted, they are expressed and supported by group administrators.

Appendix: How The Groups Examined In This Study Describe Themselves On Their Facebook Pages

The following section lists more details about each of the groups, including how they describe themselves and their purpose.

Boycott Israel: This public group has over 10,000 members. Its motto is: “Come to the truth, this group reveals the lies and deception of Zionist Media and politics which keeps us in the dark.”

BDS FIRST: This public group has 2,000 members. On its page, it describes itself in English and Russian. The English reads as follows: “BDS (Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions) is a peaceful (Gandhi style) movement of solidarity with Palestinian struggle for justice, freedom and dignity. By imposing economical pressure on Israel we will achieve same results, as we achieved by toppling regime of South African Apartheid.”

Stand with Palestine: This public group has 60,000 members. It describes itself as follows: “This group is not against any Religion or any Sect of a religion or against any Ethnic communities. Always support the suffering group. No for Racism & Fascism.” One of the group admins is Fatima Hameed. According to her personal Facebook page, Hameed, who is from India, works at CGTN, a Chinese state-owned English language TV new channel.[129]

ANTI ZIONIST – BOYCOTT ISRAEL: This closed Facebook group has 4,000 members. As a closed group, only members can view and comment on posts. There are no screening questions required to join the group.

The group describes itself as follows: “A Group against Israel and there aggressive politic towards other thinking and towards other beliefs and faith. – IT IS NOT a Muslim Group ONLY – The group is about Human rights and human values. – No intolerance against other faiths or beliefs or Racist-men is accepted – No Intolerance against color or sex is accepted – Post must be in ENGLISH – Post must have relevance for this Group. – Post have to be real (not fake posts). ANY POST OR PEOPLE NOT IN LINE WITH THE CONDITIONS OF BEING IN THIS GROUP CAN BE DELETED AND BLOCKED – We need in this group to make it very clear that the world is watching them. that the world is not happy with how they treat other. – we need make clear our point of view and continue boycotts products made in or with Israel … May peace be with us all.” In order to join the group, users must answer these questions: “Are you Jewish or Zionist?” “Do you believe in the right to kill innocent unarmed people?”

A group for Palestine and its friends: This closed group has 24,000 members.

It describes itself as follows: “This group promotes tolerance, not bigotry – hence zionists are prohibited from joining. A group to show that human beings do care and that none of us are truly free whilst anyone is oppressed. When all other rights are taken away, the right of rebellion is made perfect. ~Thomas Paine This group knows the ROOT CAUSE of the problems that Palestinians, Arabs, Middle East and even huge segments of the world are facing. This group knows about Mossad False Flag operations, the bankers robbery of the world, the Hollywood hypnotism and MSM brainwashing of the masses, and it isn’t Assad, nor Ahmedinijad, nor Nasrullah, nor Hanieyeh. This group is aware of the Global Zionist lobby and its vital role in supporting the criminal entity. This group is aware of the dangers of the supremacist racist ideology of those who call themselves ‘chosen’ and who claim ‘God gave them the land.’ Those who want to join this group only to point the finger elsewhere, to DISTRACT and ABSOLVE the real criminals, must know that they are in the wrong place. People here have done their homework. This group also knows about ‘DIVIDE and RULE’ strategy, and ‘Let them both bleed, hemorrhage to death’ strategy. Thus it REFUSES to fall prey to such evil plans. In this group, there are Christians, Muslims, agnostics, Atheists, Sunni, Shia, Catholics, Protestants, Hindus, Buddhists, you name it, and they ALL LOVE each other, and they understand that anyone who pushes the hate buttons comes here with an agenda. The original post is with great thanks to Nahida Exiled. Thank you.”

Boycott Israel…. Support the BDS: This closed group has 35,000 members. This group is very active and is the source of most of the posts examined in this study.

The following are excerpts from the group description: “If people are upset about certain posts please message me or report to admin but many times the Admins are placed in Facebook Jail and blocked from replying by the attack of the Zionist regime. You can tag any admin in post if you will should look into. This group is not India vs Pakistan nor Sunni vs Shia. This group has members from every religion Christian , Judaism ect ect and atheists. Let’s keep the insults down and understand why we are all here… to Free Palestine and support the #BDS. The posts were changed to being approved by admin. I am going to try again and allow posts with no approval and hopefully you folk will please follow these rules so we can grow faster. feel free to add all your friends and family who support Palestine. Let’s grow this group to be a force that can not be reckoned with.” A group administrator pinned this message to the top of the group in August 2018: “Members have been warned not to post Hitler or Holocaust memes in this forum. Now anyone caught posting such memes will be permanently removed from the forum. You have all been warned.”

In order to join the group one must answer these questions: “Do you support Israel?” “Why are you joining this group? This is NOT a group about BDSM?” “All questions must be answered before you can join. Do you support Zionism?”

Boycott Israel️  Free Palestine ANSWER ALL 3 QUESTIONS PLZ!! This closed group has 11,000 members.

The following are excerpts from the group description “The Balfour declaration should never have been written, there was never a vote on it by the Palestinians, British or the Jews of the world who at the time, objected. It was in essence a way to cheat at a war, then that war was called the Great War, great it was not, the Palestinians are paying the price of our comfortable society. The United Nations have no authority to take someone else’s land and give it to another group of people.” In order to join this group one must answer these questions: “Do you know the difference between Judaism and Zionism?” “Do you believe that Palestine should be free from the Jewish occupation?” “This group is about Palestine, not Islam, do you agree not to promote any religion?”

BOYCOTT ISRAEL NEWS AND MEDIA.. This closed group has 840 members and no group description.

* C. R. Rublin is a Research Fellow at MEMRI.

 


[1] Facebook.com/groups/1066990543343293, accessed October 3, 2019.

[2] Facebook.com/groups/1114007225301432, accessed October 3, 2019.

[3] Facebook.com/groups/muzirisnews, accessed October 3, 2019.

[4] Facebook.com/groups/157874861231188, accessed October 3, 2019.

[5] Facebook.com/groups/652826931411319, accessed October 3, 2019.

[6] Facebook.com/groups/1480092872310110, accessed October 3, 2019.

[7] Facebook.com/groups/1197666556965990, accessed October 3, 2019.

[8] Facebook.com/groups/1205892402769926, accessed October 3, 2019.

[9] Some spelling and grammar mistakes in the posts have been lightly edited for clarity.

[10] We include information regarding group members’ support of specific political agenda or personalities when they express this support clearly and consistently on their Facebook page. Many members either do not provide information on any clear political agendas (besides antisemitism and/or anti-Zionism in certain cases) on their personal pages, or the opinions they state are varied and inconsistent, in which case they are included in this report.

[11]Facebook.com/tommyswan357, accessed October 3, 2019.

[12] Ppost24.com/post/120/notre-dame-fire-israeli-rabbi-says-burning-churches-commanded-by-, April 27, 2019.

[13] Knowyourmeme.com/memes/happy-merchant, accessed October 3, 2019.

[14] Facebook.com/frank.johnson.79462, accessed October 3, 2019.

[15] Facebook.com/JustyJames, accessed October 3, 2019.

[16] Font size https://www.facebook.com/dawood.ibrahim.77312477

[17] Facebook.com/forrest.lackey, accessed October 3, 2019.

[18] Revelation 2:9 and 3:9.

[19] Vanessa Pearce uses two Facebook accounts and often refers to being blocked from Facebook on her other account. Facebook.com/vanessa.lockhart.507; Facebook.com/vanessa.pearce.5, accessed October 3, 2019.

[20] Facebook.com/A.CH.Hansen. He also uses the accounts: Facebook.com/amir.hansen.351; Facebook.com/charles.hansen.737001; Facebook.com/A.CH.Hansen, accessed October 3, 2019.

[21] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012699732822. He also uses the account Facebook.com/gabriel.v.helsing.1, accessed October 3, 2019.

[22] Facebook.com/lachehab.majoch, accessed October 3, 2019.

[23] Facebook.com/rex.sobotka, accessed October 3, 2019.

[24] Facebook.com/mlurie, accessed October 3, 2019.

[25] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012213393019, accessed October 3, 2019.

[26] Facebook.com/derek.dlowe, accessed October 3, 2019.

[27] Facebook.com/derek.dlowe, accessed October 3, 2019.

[28] Cwbchicago.com/2019/04/jewish-man-charged-with-hate-crime-for, April 18, 2019.

[29] Facebook.com/JimmyStephenJS/videos/329957310733291, accessed October 3, 2019.

[30] Facebook.com/JimmyStephenJS, accessed October 3, 2019.

[31] Facebook.com/13R3T7.6, accessed October 3, 2019.

[32] See MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis No. 1455, Incitement Against Jews By U.S.-Based Neo-Nazi And White Supremacist Members Of Pro-Palestinian And BDS Facebook Groups, May 16, 2019.

[33] Facebook.com/michael.english.5245961, accessed October 3, 2019.

[34] Facebook.com/leo.menssen.39. Menssen’s original Facebook account was deleted along with all his posts and posts in response to his post. He opened a new account in June 2019.

[35] The same meme was used by George Mitchell, a white supremacist member of the group Stand with Palestine. See MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis No. 1455 Incitement Against Jews By U.S.-Based Neo-Nazi And White Supremacist Members Of Pro-Palestinian And BDS Facebook Groups, May 16, 2019.

[36] Facebook.com/otto1961, accessed October 3, 2019. Bachrach used to have another account under the name Otto Conrad which was deleted.

[37] Facebook.com/sharron.mcinally, accessed October 3, 2019.

[38] Facebook.com/johanSvolstaat, accessed October 3, 2019.

[39] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100011439249791, accessed October 3, 2019.

[40] Facebook.com/anwar.mengal, accessed October 3, 2019.

[41] Facebook.com/SiD.Sadaquath, accessed October 3, 2019.

[42] Facebook.com/power.saad, accessed October 3, 2019.

[43] Facebook.com/ken.schneider.585112, accessed October 3, 2019.

[44] Facebook.com/abdulqader.haimour, accessed October 3, 2019.

[45] Facebook.com/jeffrey.sloane1, accessed October 3, 2019.

[46] Timesofisrael.com/eu-regrets-hosting-rabbi-accused-of-holocaust-denial, December 6, 2013.

[47] Facebook.com/takder.nama.50, accessed October 3, 2019.

[48] Facebook.com/Robert.Madsen.85, accessed October 3, 2019.

[49] Facebook.com/cnn/videos/10158230863751509, accessed October 3, 2019.

[50] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100010923513404, accessed October 3, 2019.

[51] Facebook.com/philip.dennany, accessed October 3, 2019.

[52] Facebook.com/husam.baker.1, accessed October 3, 2019.

[53] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100011626081456, accessed October 3, 2019.

[54] Facebook.com/waqaar.baig, accessed October 3, 2019.

[55] Ctvnews.ca/video?clipId=1595665, January 26, 2019.

[56] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009053223441, accessed October 3, 2019.

[57] Facebook.com/zam.hemmet, accessed October 3, 2019.

[58] Rightoftheright.com/jewxit-a-glimmer-of-hope-for-englands-future-as-300000-jews-threaten-to-leave, June 14, 2019.

[59] Facebook.com/phillipjulio.long, accessed October 3, 2019.

[60] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100000315318962, accessed October 3, 2019.

[61] Facebook.com/raul.roman.3158, accessed October 3, 2019.

[62] Facebook.com/Bullet77, accessed October 3, 2019.

[63] Facebook.com/mark.marsh.754, accessed October 3, 2019.

[64] Newsweek.com/jews-are-smartest-race-world-and-superior-humans-israeli-lawmaker-claims-977896, June 14, 2018.

[65] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008300058492, accessed October 3, 2019.

[66] Facebook.com/Alex.Bishop52, accessed October 3, 2019.

[67] See MEMRI report White Supremacist Online Incitement – Account Review: Man Apparently Living In Illinois Posts Anti-Jewish Hate Speech, Calls To Action, June 25, 2019.

[68] Facebook.com/viviana.lombardi.71, accessed October 3, 2019.

[69] Facebook.com/testeingabe, accessed October 3, 2019.

[70] Facebook.com/hugh.smith.58, accessed October 3, 2019.

[71] Youtube.com/watch?v=WlINbptS4_g, October 13, 2018.

[72] Russia-insider.com/en/history/ritual-talmudic-execution-and-torture-methods-bolsheviks-were-satanic/ri25529?fbclid=IwAR0QCFXZw1rp-hVsa9tKX6wcRgx0io5LparOtQFZ-dg6G_i5Eo7KhuOj2IE#.XPdpOBtukJo.facebook, May 18, 2019.

[73] Facebook.com/marvmarilyn, accessed October 3, 2019.

[74] Facebook.com/barry.graham.7967, accessed October 3, 2019.

[75] Facebook.com/shoaibakhtar365, accessed October 3, 2019.

[76] Freedomfromdelusion.blogspot.com/2019/05/abortion-possible-jewish-origin.html?fbclid=IwAR1kJ6aA_TqaIOnzjQI-Zu_3hk8G1rqNIOiIrVXekqfB8l8J-gZCKzsNC14, May 20, 2019.

[77] Facebook.com/unavailablewtf, accessed October 3, 2019.

[78] Theguardian.com/world/2003/jul/12/books.usa, July 12, 2003.

[79] Facebook.com/william.kobilca.77, accessed October 3, 2019.

[80] Facebook.com/abdul.raziff.9, accessed October 3, 2019.

[81] Facebook.com/heeda.ali.9, accessed October 3, 2019.

[82] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100010951818892, accessed October 3, 2019.

[83] See MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis No. 1455 Incitement Against Jews By U.S.-Based Neo-Nazi And White Supremacist Members Of Pro-Palestinian And BDS Facebook Groups, May 16, 2019.

[84] See MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis No. 1455 Incitement Against Jews By U.S.-Based Neo-Nazi And White Supremacist Members Of Pro-Palestinian And BDS Facebook Groups, May 16, 2019.

[85] Facebook.com/itsadogslifeXV3, accessed October 3, 2019.

[86] Facebook.com/heeda.ali.9, accessed October 3, 2019.

[87] Facebook.com/kamal.sulaiman.940, accessed October 3, 2019.

[88] Breitbart.com/tech/2015/12/22/ben-garrison-how-the-internet-made-a-fake-white-supremacist, December 22, 2015.

[89] Facebook.com/jay.skinner.1675, accessed October 3, 2019.

[90] Facebook.com/sharif.abdulsalaam, accessed October 3, 2019.

[91] Facebook.com/pitsa.Orfanakos, accessed October 3, 2019.

[92] Facebook.com/karel.delange.777, accessed October 3, 2019.

[93] Facebook.com/annakarima, accessed October 3, 2019.

[94] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012790448128, accessed October 3, 2019.

[95] Facebook.com/amin.katana.5, accessed October 3, 2019.

[96] Facebook.com/fidel.rodriguezarguinzoni, accessed October 3, 2019.

[97] Livescience.com/40247-ashkenazi-jews-have-european-genes.html?fbclid=IwAR1Xf76Hsu5RR4b37xEWKvQZhiwC0Hpxa03R9CyPRlWrUymkS6s-1q9_C-I&sfns=xmo, October 8, 2013.

[98] There is no record of the identity of the person who posted this meme because the thread on which it was posted was started by the group administrator Leo A Messon, (see above) and when he deactivated his original account all comments to his posts were automatically removed from Facebook.

[99] Facebook.com/claus.prang, accessed October 3, 2019.

[100] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100021753678175 , accessed October 3, 2019.

[101] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009008308026, accessed October 3, 2019.

[102] Facebook.com/saidliz4, accessed October 3, 2019.

[103] Facebook.com/ashraful.islam.3158, accessed October 3, 2019.

[104] Facebook.com/paul.lambe.5, accessed October 3, 2019.

[105] Jcpa.org/article/holocaust-inversion-the-portraying-of-israel-and-jews-as-nazis, April 1, 2007.

[106] See MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis No. 1455 Incitement Against Jews By U.S.-Based Neo-Nazi And White Supremacist Members Of Pro-Palestinian And BDS Facebook Groups, May 16, 2019.

[107] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009293735834, accessed October 3, 2019.

[108] Facebook.com/dawood.ibrahim.77312477, accessed October 3, 2019.

[109] Facebook.com/boatsofdistinction, accessed October 3, 2019.

[110] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=10000987622759, accessed October 3, 2019.

[111] Facebook.com/zubaida.ali.1000, accessed October 3, 2019.

[112] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008178854623, this account has been deactivated.

[113] Facebook.com/angela.beverley, accessed October 3, 2019.

[114] Facebook.com/reese.lazara, accessed October 3, 2019.

[115] Facebook.com/crainsbury, accessed October 3, 2019.

[116] Facebook.com/jason.pillay.39, accessed October 3, 2019.

[117] Facebook.com/kozmo.khani, accessed October 3, 2019.

[118] Jta.org/2017/09/08/united-states/tufts-university-activists-publish-guide-calling-israel-a-white-supremacist-state, September 8, 2017.

[119] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=1513717196, accessed October 3, 2019.

[120] Facebook.com/asef.a.kazi, accessed October 3, 2019.

[121] Standard.co.uk/news/crime/jailed-white-supremacist-who-wrote-islamophobic-and-antisemitic-messages-online-a3474581.html?fbclid=IwAR0n-A-_3xm6rBNauaGpOe3sJcI6r_LdwpghJ3HbnFWFesfnn3UZQBBzuMo, February 24, 2017.

[122] Facebook.com/grant.jack.5, accessed October 3, 2019.

[123] Splcenter.org/hatewatch/2014/02/21/james-laffrey-and-his-call-assassinate-jews, February 21, 2014.

[124] Facebook.com/shaun.kingston.71, accessed October 3, 2019.

[125] Middleeasteye.net/opinion/birds-feather-white-supremacy-and-zionism?fbclid=IwAR1tMb0tExLDXwNKQYpxALKYr_uDq600CI4KILoqWF5QzMdBeUZh9HMb5Lg, August 24, 2017.

[126] Facebook.com/Dondee3, accessed October 3, 2019.

[127] Nworeport.me/2018/07/13/the-confederate-flag-raised-again-at-south-carolina-capitol/?fbclid=IwAR1nqMEDtk_dk84D8SX5IdY2J-JzgcPXYutix0FmQeeROEwLTlItc42vDNQ, July 13, 2018.

[128] Facebook.com/karl.aynedter/timeline?lst=100029013431313%3A763014616%3A1562929450, accessed October 3, 2019.

[129] Facebook.com/profile.php?id=100011086445869, accessed October 3, 2019.

Incitement Against Jews Within BDS And Pro-Palestinian Facebook Groups – Part II

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