BDS and antisemitism in December were shaped by the ongoing war in Gaza. Unwittingly, that war has set into motion of series of events, not least of all disastrous Congressional testimony from three university presidents, further compromising public trust in higher education and exposing the red-green alliance to undermine Western society. Campus antisemitism embodied in calls for “intifada’ have escalated into violent ‘globalize the intifada’ protests shutting down public infrastructure across the US and Canada. The BDS movement and the issue of ‘Palestine’ are components of much larger efforts to bring about a pervasive anti-capitalist and anti-American revolution.
Administrations and Institutions
Campus BDS and antisemitism in December remained shaped by the ongoing war in Gaza. The main event of the month was the appearance of the presidents of Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before a House committee investigating antisemitism on campus.
Most controversially the presidents were asked if calls for genocide against Jews embodied in chants of ‘intifada’ would be protected speech. Penn president Liz Magill stated that “If the speech turns into conduct, it can be harassment, yes,” adding that “It is a context dependent decision.” The answer was echoed by Harvard president Claudine Gay, who stated that “it depends on the context,” and MIT president Sally Kornbluth, who noted “if the speech turns into conduct.” Gay added that calls for intifada were “evil,” and “personally abhorrent,”and “at odds with the values of Harvard,” but declined to say whether they violated university policies.
The presidents’ inept responses provoked a firestorm of criticism from the White House, the public, lawmakers, and alums, and resulted in Magill’s resignation along with the head of Penn’s board of trustees. Another unintended consequence was to focus attention on the presidents themselves. In the case of Gay it quickly became apparent that her publication record was astonishingly thin, and much appears to have been plagiarized The plagiarism scandal has now broken through to mainstream media and a Congressional investigation has been launched. Most Harvard students and faculty, however, furiously defended her, adding to the school’s public relations problems. Gay has now resigned.
Bizarrely, other university administrations soon felt compelled to issued statements clarifying, as Cornell University president Martha Pollack put it, “Genocide is abhorrent, and Cornell condemns calls for the genocide of any people… An explicit call for genocide, to kill all members of a group of people, would be a violation of our policies.” The ethnic cleansing of Jews implicit in chants of “from the river to the sea, Palestine will be free” were unaddressed.
The presidents’ hapless testimony centering on campus antisemitism focused attention on the deep mediocrity of university leadership and their inability to respond to concerns regarding harassment and intimidation of Jews on campus. The reputational harm to Harvard in particular is significant, as reports indicate that early admission acceptances have dropped, suggesting a shift in perceptions of the social value of a Harvard degree. Reports also indicate that Jewish students have begun to change their college application patterns, shifting away from the Ivy League
The donor revolt against academia which began in October when universities faltered in issuing statements condemning Hamas also widened in December. Several elite institutions, especially Harvard and the University of Pennsylvania, reported losing major gifts, missing fundraising targets, lowering the ‘donor door’ for special consideration, and expressing the need to reestablish relationships with alumni.
At the same time the Hamas attack and the BDS inspired campus responses have made the larger problem of academia’s intellectual and political monoculture more broadly understood. This situation has long been cast in terms of political parties, such as the near absolute dominance of Democratic voters and donors within the humanities and social sciences. But the intellectual aspect was fully revealed by support for Hamas’ atrocities from intellectuals defending “decolonization” and violence.
In response to the donor revolt at the University of Pennsylvania, some 900 faculty members signed a letter expressing opposition to what was described as “attempts by trustees, donors, and other external actors to interfere with our academic policies and to undermine academic freedom.”
Despite the unprecedented attention focused on campuses, administrations continue to take as little action as possible against students who harass and intimidate others or who call for or celebrate violence.
· One student at New York University was suspended for tearing down posters of kidnapped Israelis.
· At McGill University the administration banned the Solidarity for Palestinian Human Rights (SPHR) chapter from using the school’s name after social media postings celebrated Hamas as “heroic.” Students at McGill had previously approved a “Policy Against Genocide in Palestine” that “compels SSMU to lobby McGill to condemn Israel’s siege on Gaza, divest from companies that support the state of Israel, and cut ties with Israeli universities” and demands the student government take “a public stand against Israel’s genocidal violence in Gaza and stand in solidarity with Palestinian and Arab students.”
· Charges were dropped against some 40 Brown University students who were for occupying a university building.
· Charges were dropped against 26 University of Chicago students arrested for occupying a building.
· A sit-in at Haverford College continued past a deadline set by the administration after which disciplinary action had been threatened.
· The University of Massachusetts Police Department changed its log procedures to shield the identities of `arrested students. These data will no longer be available on the Internet but only in person.
· Harvard University directed the school’s Chabad to remove its menorah from public display since it could not be protected from vandalism.
In a small sign of pushback against faculty, the Wellesley College administration and trustees rejected a faculty letter demanding a statement that “criticism of the state of Israel and of Zionism is not an expression of antisemitism.” The president retorted that “Some anti-Israel and anti-Zionist speech can, in fact, create a hostile environment for many of our students. The letter ignores how opinions and statements of the kind expressed in the letter can threaten the existence of Israel and increase fears for Jewish students on our campus.”
A similar statement was released by Columbia University deans, leading to bitter and ironic complaints from pro-BDS faculty, especially Rashid Khalidi, who stated that the deans called for “a new norm that prohibits using or learning about these terms and their histories, in favor of the privileging of a politics of feeling
Donor objections to specific presidents and policies, above all ‘diversity, equity, and inclusion’ (DEI) and their powerful bureaucracies, have been in the open since October. Reports from Princeton and elsewhere have shown that concerns from Jewish students are dismissed and even ridiculed by DEI bureaucrats. As calls to dismantle DEI bureaucracies have increased, Jewish organizations have sought to integrate Jewish concerns within existing DEI initiatives. These run counter to the emerging political wave against DEI as a whole and have also been opposed by leading figures within the Jewish community, including former ADL head Abe Foxman and AJC head David Harris.
The futility (and inherent humiliation) of recasting Jews as an ‘oppressed’ rather than ‘oppressor’ group within the DEI ideology (derived from Critical Race Theory) is demonstrated by repeated exposés showing how deeply racist DEI bureaucrats are. One recently exposed example is a candidate for the University of Minnesota’s top DEI position, Sima Shakhsari, associate professor in the department of Gender, Women and Sexuality Studies, a BDS supporters who denies that Israeli women were raped in the October 7 attack and who has participated in ‘globalize the Intifada’ protests. Her candidacy was rejected.
Faculty remain at the forefront of ‘pro-Palestine’ activities on campus. “Faculty for Justice in Palestine” chapters continue to be formed, including at Rutgers University, Princeton University, the University of Michigan, the University of Massachusetts, the University of Hawaii, and elsewhere, ostensibly “in order to support NSJP, protect local SJP organizers, offer faculty defense, organize teach-ins and other actions, and engage in Palestine solidarity work generally.” The groups are formed under the aegis of the leading BDS organization, the US Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel. The umbrella organization’s mission statement, to which faculty groups must adhere, are:
- Ending its occupation and colonization of all Arab lands and dismantling the Wall;
- Recognizing the fundamental rights of the Arab-Palestinian citizens of Israel to full equality; and
- Respecting, protecting and promoting the rights of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes and properties as stipulated in UN resolution 194.
The first and third points implicitly call for the extinction of Israel.
The mission statements of the umbrella group and local chapters suggest individual faculty members cannot teach subjects related to Israel, Palestine, or Jews with fairness. Preexisting academic units such as Brown University’s Center for Middle East Studies are already documented as wholly dedicated to the Palestinian cause.
Faculty groups in December also shifted to issuing statements ‘affirming their right to academic freedom.’ This was cast exclusively terms of ‘Israel/Palestine’ and demands that faculty be given absolute impunity to explicitly politicize pedagogy.
· UCLA faculty stated that “We write in the face of a concerted and coordinated assault on academic freedom and free speech that is unfolding on a national scale and that is targeted in particular against institutions of higher education” They demanded the university “Publicly reject the deliberately mendacious and misleading conflation of criticism of the Israeli state with antisemitism,” and “Offer resources, services and accommodations to students, faculty, and staff affected by the genocide in Palestine and mounting repression campaigns.”
· University of Wisconsin faculty complained about the “growing trend to treat criticism of the policies and practices of the state of Israel or of the ideology of Zionism as evidence of antisemitism,” endorsed the ‘Jerusalem Declaration on Antisemitism,’ and stated that “using stereotypes about Jewish people in criticism of Israel would indeed be antisemitic, but simple critique (or even condemnation) of the state of Israel must be protected as part of a healthy educational discourse. Therefore, we affirm that criticism of the state of Israel or the political ideology of Zionism is not in and of itself antisemitic.”
· Swarthmore College faculty decried the administration’s efforts to “discourage, intimidate, and/or silence pro-Palestine speech on campus” and rumors that it will present ““counter-programming” in response to support for Palestine.” The signers also claimed that “The suggestion that the classroom is not a political space or that the College is a neutral institution that is in some way hermetically sealed from our broader geopolitical context contradicts the College’s commitment to rigorous scholarship that engages with the most pressing contemporary issues. This fantasy also obscures the College’s ongoing complicity with U.S. militarism.”
· The Middle East Studies Association released another letter from its board demanding that college and university presidents defend “free speech,” specifically “criticisms of Israeli policies or actions and advocacy on behalf of Palestinian rights to freedom and equality.”
The inability or unwillingness of administrations to exert even basic oversight over faculty statements was displayed repeatedly:
· At the University of Colorado at Boulder the ‘Ethnic Studies’ department accused Israel of “another unprecedented genocidal attack on the Palestinian people” on October 7, without mentioning Hamas. The chancellor later condemned this statement but suggested that it was permissible under “academic freedom.” Members of the department then cast themselves as the victims of ‘fascists.’
· At Barnard College the New York Civil Liberties Union accused the school of “‘prior restraint’ in violation of fundamental free speech principles and in a manner incompatible with a sound understanding of ‘academic freedom,’” for changing rules on departments making unauthorized statements.
The impunity demanded by faculty in the name of “academic freedom,” cast exclusively as the ability to condemn Israel and Zionism in any terms, is a unique development normalizing anti-Israel and antisemitic discourse. The notion that faculty are among the real victims in campus politics is also widespread. Middle East studies faculty continue to complain that they are being ‘silenced’ and that ‘academic repression’ surrounding “Israel-Palestine” is ‘widespread.’ The prevalence of Middle East studies scholars in public statements excoriating Israel would seem to belie these concerns.
The politicization of classrooms was displayed at the University of California at Berkeley when a lecturer in a computer science class offered his perspectives on the “genocide of the Palestinian people.” A “Globalize the Intifada” protest at Harvard University used bullhorns in a number of classroom buildings.
Elsewhere, faculty members continue to be exposed as Hamas supporters, such as Brooke Lober of the University of California at Berkeley’s Gender and Women Studies Department, who claimed at an Oakland City Council meeting that “The notion that this was a massacre of Jews is a fabricated narrative.” A panel sponsored by the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences “Anti-Racism Coalition” and the school’s Institute for Middle East Studies supported Hamas’ “right of resistance” and accused Israel of “ethnic cleansing” and “genocide.”
Revelations also continue to emerge regarding the antisemitic content forced into K-12 education through ‘ethnic studies’ curriculums which cast Israelis and Jews as oppressors. This content also takes advantage of the inherent bullying and anti-establishment behavior of children to target Jewish students and teachers directly. Local schools tend to deny and cover up for teachers and incidents of harassment, such as in Westport (CT) where a Jewish student was forced to withdraw from a public school and where the family was then forced to sign a confidentiality agreement.
Despite a stream of revelations regarding teachers effectively preaching jihad in the classroom, few have been removed, particularly in systems such as New York City, where union regulations make it nearly impossible. Reports also note the widespread presence of ‘Democratic Socialists of America’ members in schools and on school boards providing protection for anti-Israel and anti-capitalist propaganda. Statements such as that from the Massachusetts Teachers Union accusing the US of complicity in ‘genocide’ confirms the far left and anti-Israel orientation of these groups. The US Department of Education in December announced an investigation of antisemitic harassment in New York City schools.
Fortunately in California, the epicenter of ‘ethnic studies,’ a University of California committee narrowly decided to drop ‘ethnic studies’ as an admission requirement for the state university system. This would have forced high schools across the state to present such courses, which are have been developed by anti-Israel faculty.
The larger revolutionary intent behind faculty animosity was demonstrated at the University of Minnesota where Native American faculty members at a teach-in on Palestine stated “we’re all indigenous people who come from nations who are under occupation by the United States government,” and that “The goal is to dismantle the settler project that is the United States. For the freedom and future of all life on this planet depends on that.”
The impacts of anti-Israel sentiment in academia after October 7 has been felt in informal boycotts of Israeli faculty and institutions. Publications, invitations, collaborations and requests for sharing of materials and data have reportedly been slowed. These boycotts have the potential for harming Israel’s economic and academic standings and may have an impact on global science, given Israel’s outsized contributions.
Campus protests continued during December. Sit-ins were undertaken at Swarthmore College, the University of Massachusetts, Vassar College, Stanford University, Harvard University, Occidental College, and New York University, among others.
Many protests were aimed at disrupting university operations. University trustees, presidents, and Jewish events were particular targets:
· A protest at a University of Oregon trustees meeting led to arrests.
· A protest at a University of Iowa fundraising event led to arrests.
· A protest was held outside a University of Michigan Board of Regents meeting.
· A menorah lighting ceremony at the University of Wisconsin was disrupted.
· A menorah lighting ceremony at the University of Washington was forced to move to another facility by protestors.
· The president of Brown University was shouted down at a public event even after she omitted reference to Jewish students.
· Students at Cornell University occupied a building and held a mock trial for president Martha Pollack, accusing her of complicity in “genocide against Palestinian civilians.”
· A Palestinian flag was hung on a menorah at Yale University, leading to widespread condemnation.
BDS supporters also undertook a variety of illegal activities. A student referendum on BDS at the University of Michigan was canceled by the administration after pro-Palestinian students illegally accessed a campus wide email system to send messages. At George Washington University students illegally recorded the university president and edited the audio to make it appear she had expressed ‘anti-Palestinian’ views.
Events were also held in defiance of university regulations:
· Pro-BDS groups at Columbia University held a protest after the school banned the local SJP chapter.
· Pro-BDS groups at Harvard University held a protest after the school banned the Palestine Solidarity Committee.
· At the Columbia School of Social Work students held an unauthorized event at which Hamas’ massacre of Israelis was celebrated.
The protests were especially revealing of the ‘social justice’ based racism directed toward Jews and Israel which is now fundamental to various disciplines. This was especially notable at the Columbia Social Work school, which is centered around “power, race, oppression and privilege” and forcing political ideology into therapeutic settings.
The ease if not delight with which the term ‘genocide’ is misused by students echoes Palestinian misuse to gain sympathy in the larger economy of victimhood and to supplant historical reality by accusing Jews of being perpetrators. It also resonates with the devaluation of Jewish suffering by elements of the far left and Islam, expropriating ‘genocide’ as the apotheosis of ‘antiracist’ accusations against Jews to justify their own racism and failure in the framework of the ultimate evil.
The outburst of generational antisemitsm including shocking support for the elimination of Israel and even destruction of Jews as a group has caused a rapid series of analyses but little institutional self-introspection. The institutionalization of ‘tenured radicals’ espousing anti-American and anti-Israel notions is well documented. To this must be added specifically 21st century conditions. Gen Z antipathy for Israel is accelerated by Tik-Tok, the Chinese owned propaganda platform, which massively pushes pro-Palestinian content to consumers as part of a state agenda, and even by ‘protests’ within virtual spaces such as the Roblox online game.
More broadly the problem lies with the ‘oppressor-oppressed’ mindset – foundational to the artificial notion of ‘social justice – in which Jews are cast the ultimate ‘white people.’ These are coupled with the construction of mental fragility by self-esteem oriented public psychologies and pedagogies, and ‘social justice’ discourse which is quick to seize on perceived power differences to explain failure of social policies.
These hypotheses are born out by largely sympathetic interviews with SJP members published in the New Yorker and Forward which unwittingly emphasized the absolute centrality of ‘Palestine’ and the destruction of Israel is to the identity of American Arab and Muslim students but how little most students understand about the Middle East in general.
Overall, ‘Palestine’ is a convenient gateway into broader revolutionary politics, identity formation, and community. This was demonstrated at the Ohio State University where the school suspended the ‘Central Ohio Revolutionary Socialists’ as danger to the university community and for using the logo of the marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a proscribed terror organization, in its pro-Hamas publicity.
Consistent with the explicit calls to “Globalize the intifada,’ public protests and riots ostensibly in support of the ‘Palestinian cause’ were widespread in December. Transportation was specifically targeted. Traffic was stopped on bridges in the New York City area, the 110 freeway in Los Angeles, and the Bay Bridge in Oakland, access roads to JFK Airport, O’Hare Airport, and countless other locations. Grand Central Station, Penn Station, and other rail links were also targeted. Numerous sites including the Lincoln Memorial were vandalized with ‘Free Gaza’ graffiti. City council meetings were disrupted, including in Evanston, Illinois
Jewish events, such as the annual Jewish National Fund conference in Denver, were protested, along with heavily Jewish towns such as Teaneck, New Jersey. In a sign of how powerless law enforcement has become in the face of mass protests, by design or default, activist Elisha Weisel was asked by New York City Police to remove an Israeli flag as he confronted protestors at Penn Station.
Christmas and festive celebrations and shopping were disrupted in parks, malls, stores and public venues such as midtown Manhattan and London by protestors declaring ‘Christmas is canceled.’ Assaults and arrests were reported. Protests were also held on Christmas morning outside the homes of Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin and national Security Advisor Jake Sullivan. Efforts to shut down New Year’s celebrations were made in major cities.
The situation in Gaza was the ostensible motive but the actions were undertaken by pro-Palestinian groups as well as a wide array of communist and social groups including ‘The People’s Forum’ and the ‘Party for Socialism and Liberation.’ The support for ‘Palestine’ given by ‘climate change’ personality Greta Thunberg conveniently demonstrated the unity of these and other far left causes.
The mass protests continue to be demonstrations of strength designed to harass and intimidate the public and humiliate the police rather than efforts to persuade regarding the rightness of the ‘Palestinian cause.’ The associated Islamic component, displayed when hundreds of Muslims took over the central hall at New York’s Moynihan Station for prayers, was similarly designed to claim a public space and implicitly dare others to defy them at the risk of violence and the inevitable cries of ‘Islamophobia.’ Such claims on public spaces are routine in European cities and are a feature of parallel Muslim societies which increasingly intrude on and supplant national societies. There is a high likelihood that protests will escalate through the 2024 election season, particularly during the summer, on the model of the 2020 ‘George Floyd’ riots.
Street protests also continued in December aimed at disrupting public activities and targeting individuals and institutions with real or imagined connection to Israel. Comedian Jerry Seinfeld’s performance in Syracuse was targeted by protestors who accused him of being “complicit in genocide.” The protest was organized by the Syracuse chapter of the Democratic Socialists of America, the Syracuse Collective for Palestinian Liberation, the Resilient Indigenous Action Collective and the Syracuse chapter of the Party for Socialism and Liberation.
The funding of pro-Hamas protests continues to attract scrutiny. After revelations regarding far left millionaires and their foundations, including some with connections to the Chinese Communist Party, these and other longstanding support systems such as the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the Tides Center have come under scrutiny for providing funds to various protest and pro-Hamas groups such as Adalah and Palestine Legal. Tides Center also distributes funds for the Federal government and various states, making these entities indirect funders of anti-Israel activities. Local governments including in New York City have also been documented providing funds directly to BDS and pro-Hamas organizations through ‘community grants.’
Another direct reflection of “Globalize the Intifada” protests were hundreds of bomb threats and swatting threats called in to Jewish institutions, apparently from outside the US. Violent protests were held outside of Jewish owned business in cities including Philadelphia, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York City. Property crimes directed against Jewish owned businesses and other sites in New York City also rose 85% in December. Shabbat services at Temple Beth Am in Los Angeles were relocated for the first time in history after a pro-Hamas demonstration was scheduled in a park across the street.
In the political sphere the central event was the House hearings on campus antisemitism. The House of Representatives also passed a resolution condemning the October 7 attack and stating that anti-Zionism is a form of antisemitism. The measure passed 311-14 but 92 Democrats voted “present.” The pro-BDS ‘Squad’ comprised the no votes along with Rep. Thomas Massie (R-KY).
The absolute identification of the higher education industry with the Democratic Party and its policies, namely affirmative action and other forms of officially constituted discrimination such as DEI, has long simmered as a political issue. But in the wake of the outburst of campus antisemitism and indifferent institutional responses, culminating in the disastrous House testimony by Gay, Magill and Kornbluth, lawmakers have become far more vocal in their criticism and legislative remedies.
New proposals to tax university endowments, end tax breaks, and investigate university finances have become common. The continuing revelations regarding Qatari funding for universities including their branches based in Qatar and programs designed to train and place anti-Israel activists in the US have put further scrutiny on that country’s pervasive social and economic control of American institutions, from universities to sports leagues.
For its part, the Biden Administration is again delaying issuing new regulations amending Title VI of the Higher Education Act to extend protections to Jewish students. One explanation is fear of further alienating Arab and Muslim voters by extending protections to Jews.
In a sign that Democrats are fearful of losing Arab and Muslim voters, vice president Kamala Harris has become increasing vocal in criticizing the ‘excess casualties’ in Gaza and demanded that the administration ‘show more sensitivity to Palestinians.’ Leaks regarding Harris’ apparent concerns play into the issue of her succeeding Biden as a candidate or as president should he resign or die in office.
The administration’s relationship with American Muslims was complicated by a statement on Gaza from administration ally Nihar Awad, president of the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), that “I was happy to see people breaking the siege and throwing down the shackles of their own land and walk free into their land that they were not allowed to walk in.” The White House condemned the remarks and removed CAIR from the list of organizations enlisted to support the ‘National Strategy to Counter Antisemitism.’ But the increasingly wide distribution of Muslim communities in the US and their growing political action around the single issue of opposing Israel is a growing factor in future electoral calculations, particularly in states such as Michigan, Virginia, and New Jersey.
At the same time pro-Hamas activists have continued to target Democrats. In one incident a Michigan Democratic Party holiday event was disrupted when members of the Palestinian Youth Movement and ‘Party for Socialism and Liberation’ entered the venue to harass Congresswoman Shri Thanedar (D-Mich.). The resulting fight sent several individuals to the hospital. Congressman Ritchie Torres (D-NY) was harassed by pro-Hamas protestors at the 92nd Street Y who shouted “Ritchie Torres, you can’t hide, we charge you with genocide.” Pro-Hamas protestors also vandalized the offices of several Democratic Congressmen as well as the home of Rep. Adam Smith (D-WA). The willingness to attack politicians is a grave escalation.
Most surprising has been the position of Senator John Fetterman (D-PA), previously aligned progressive positions, who has strongly supported Israel and condemned Hamas during the conflict. His emerging position on illegal immigration also puts him at odds with the progressive wing of the party.
The stunt of anonymous letters from Federal employees continued in December with a letter ostensibly from Department of Homeland Security personnel accusing the administration of ‘turning a blind eye to genocide’ in Gaza. But various reports note that little evidence in fact exists to suggest that the signers of various letters are in fact Federal employees, and that unidentifiable outsiders have penetrated message boards to stir up junior staffers and ‘interns.’ The possibility that the anonymous letters are the result of state-level information operations directed at the US and Israel appears likely.
Overall, however, the apparent disdain felt by lower level staffers towards Israel and Jews reflects the documented generational divide and more specifically the danger implicit in hiring university activists in any capacity, including in corporate and professional settings such as law and medicine.
Finally, as the 2024 election year approaches polls continue to be used to gauge and manipulate public opinion including American support for Israel. One recent takeaway is that a substantial portion of Americans aged 18-24 appear to identify Jews as “oppressors” and substantially support Palestinians over Israelis, but also believe that calling for genocide against Jews on campus is harassment. These and other observations, such as the inability of students questioned to identify the geographic components referenced in the phrase ‘from the river to the sea…’ reflect unique generational ignorance that grounds political stances based on emotion.
Mainstream media framing polls showing Biden’s personal unpopularity also deliberately emphasize younger voters’ negative attitudes regarding Gaza and Israel to the exclusion of more obvious issues such as illegal immigration and the economy. The same polls also show Gen Z Biden supporters with strongly negative feelings about Israel shifting support to former President Trump. Polls taken of Democratic voters, however, purport to show continued strong support for Israel. Polls within the American Jewish community continue to show strong support for Israel’s fight against Gaza but with lower levels among Gen Zers.